Financial performance is a subjective measure of how well a firm can use assets from its primary mode of business and generate revenues. The term is also used as a general measure of a firm's overall financial health over a given period. Analysts and investors use financial performance to compare similar firms across the same industry or to compare industries or sectors in aggregate. There are many ways to measure financial performance, but all measures should be taken in aggregate.
Line items, such as revenue from operations, operating incomeor cash flow from operations can be used, as well as total unit sales. Furthermore, the analyst or investor may wish to look deeper into financial statements and seek out margin growth rates or any declining debt. Six Sigma methods focus on this aspect. There are many stakeholders in a company, including trade creditors, bondholders, investors, employees, and management.
Each group has its own interest in tracking the financial performance of a company. Analysts learn about financial performance from data published by the company in Form 10K, also known as the annual report.
Public companies must publish the SEC required 10K form. The purpose of the report is to provide stakeholders with accurate and reliable financial statements that provide an overview of the company's financial performance. In addition, company leaders audit and sign these statements and other disclosure documents.
In this way, the 10K represents the most comprehensive source of information on financial performance made available to investors annually. Included in the 10K are three financial statements: the balance sheet, the income statement, and the cash flow statement. The financial performance identifies how well a company generates revenues and manages its assets, liabilities, and the financial interests of its stakeholders.
The balance sheet is a snapshot of the financial balances of an organization. It provides an overview of how well the company manages its assets and liabilities. Analysts can find information about long-term vs. They can also find information about what kind of assets the company owns and what percentage of assets are financed with liabilities vs. The income statement provides a summary of operations for the entire year.Print Options.
Past General Exams
Director of Undergraduate Studies: Dr. Susan Elmes, International Affairs Building; ; se5 columbia. Director of Departmental Honors Program: Dr. Economics is the study of the ways in which society allocates its scarce resources among alternative uses and the consequences of these decisions.
The areas of inquiry deal with a varied range of topics such as international trade, domestic and international financial systems, labor market analysis, and the study of less developed economies. Broadly speaking, the goal of an economics major is to train students to think analytically about social issues and, as such, provide a solid foundation for not only further study and careers in economics, but also for careers in law, public service, business, and related fields.
The Economics Department offers a general economics major in addition to five interdisciplinary majors structured to suit the interests and professional goals of a heterogeneous student body. All of these programs have different specific requirements but share the common structure of core theoretical courses that provide the foundation for higher-level elective courses culminating in a senior seminar.
Students are urged to carefully look through the details of each of these programs and to contact an appropriate departmental adviser to discuss their particular interests. Tests must be taken in both microeconomics and macroeconomics, with a score of 5 on one test and at least a 4 on the other. The Department of Economics offers a variety of advising resources to provide prospective and current undergraduate majors and concentrators with the information and support needed to successfully navigate through the program.
These resources are described below. As a first step, students are encouraged to visit the department's FAQ page, which provides comprehensive information and answers to the most frequently asked questions about the departmental majors and requirements. This page also includes a section that answers specific questions of first-years, sophomores, and non-majors.
For answers to the most common questions that students have about the majors, the department has graduate student advisers, who are available by e-mail at econ-advising columbia. Students should direct all questions and concerns about their major to the graduate student advisers either in person or via e-mail. The graduate student advisers can discuss major requirements, scheduling, and major course selection, as well as review student checklists and discuss progress in the major.
Occasionally, graduate student advisers may refer a student to someone else in the department such as the director of undergraduate studies or in the student's school for additional advising.
Contact information and office hours for the graduate student advisers are posted on the Advisers page of the departmental website in the week prior to the beginning of the semester. Students considering one of the interdepartmental majors should speak to both a graduate student adviser from the Economics Department and the adviser from the other department early in the sophomore year.
Faculty advisers are available to discuss students' academic and career goals, both in terms of the undergraduate career and post-graduate degrees and research. Students wishing to discuss these types of substantive topics may request a faculty adviser by completing the form available on the Advisers page of the departmental website and depositing it in the mailbox of the director of undergraduate studies in the department's main office, International Affairs Building.
The department does its best to match students with faculty members that share similar academic interests. While faculty advisers do not discuss major requirements—that is the role of the graduate student advisers—they do provide guidance in course selection as it relates to meeting a student's intellectual goals and interests, as well as advise on career and research options. It is recommended that students who plan on attending a Ph.
Students can access useful information on-line, including: a comprehensive FAQ page; requirement changes to the major and concentration; sample programs and checklists; faculty office hours, contact information and fields of specialization; adviser information; teaching assistant information; research assistant opportunities; list of tutors; and Columbia-Barnard Economics Society information.Listed in the following table are practice exam questions and solutions, and the exam questions and solutions.
Additional materials for exam preparation can be found under the class sessions dedicated to exam review. Students were encouraged to prepare a 4x6 inch notecard to use for reference during each exam. Don't show me this again. This is one of over 2, courses on OCW. Find materials for this course in the pages linked along the left. No enrollment or registration.
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Exam 1 PDF. Solutions to Exam 1 PDF. Exam 2 PDF. Solutions to Exam 2 PDF. Final Exam PDF.Topics include key characteristics of financial data, concepts of volatility and risk, modelling time varying volatility ARCH modelsand modelling relationships among financial series. The knowledge and methods acquired in this course are particularly useful and sought after in the public government and private industry financial sectors. Please note that teaching times and locations are subject to change.
Students are strongly advised to refer to the Class Timetable website for the most up-to-date teaching times and locations. The Business School expects that you are familiar with the contents of this course outline and the UNSW and Business School learning expectations, rules, policies and support services as listed below:. Students may not circulate or post online any course materials such as handouts, exams, syllabus or similar resources from their courses without the written permission of their instructor.
The course aims to provide students with the basic framework for modelling financial time series data.
Past General Exams
In particular, it will benefit students in terms of:. A good grasp of basic mathematical statistics and linear algebra is necessary for surviving the course. Some familiarity with real analysis would make life easier for understanding the technical details, but is not required. A previous course in time series is not required or assumed. However, a basic knowledge of estimation and inference in linear regression models will be assumed.
The Course Learning Outcomes CLOs are what you should be able to demonstrate by the end of this course, if you participate fully in learning activities and successfully complete the assessment items.
CLOs also contribute to your achievement of the Program Learning Outcomes PLOswhich are developed across the duration of a program for all coursework students in the Business School. Apply financial econometric tools to modelling, estimation, inference and forecasting of financial data. Present comprehensible results to a non-technical audience, and communicate ideas in a clear and concise manner.
Formulate economic and business interactions in analytical terms and analyse them using tools provided by the theory. You should feel free to contact your lecturer s about any academic matter.
However, it is strongly encouraged, for efficiency, that all enquiries about the subject material be made at lecture forums or tutorials or during online consultation time. Discussion of course subject material will not be entered into via lengthy emails.
You should expect responses to email correspondence within 48 hours, but not over weekends.
Before communicating with staff, please check relevant components of this course outline as this will provide answers to most common questions. You should also regularly check the course website for announcements and reminders about upcoming events and deadlines. Please note that the lecturer has no advance notice of the date and time of the final exam.
Students can vary their own enrolment including switching lecture streams or tutorials via myUNSW until the end of Week 1.
In general, most other student enrolment requests should be directed to The Nucleus: Student Hub formerly Student Central. These include enrolment in full courses or tutorials, course timetable clashes, waiving prerequisites for any course, transfer-of-credit international exchange, transfer to UNSW, cross-institutional study, etc.
Where appropriate, the request will be passed to the School Office for approval before processing. Note that enrolment changes are rarely considered after Week 2 classes have taken place. Specifically, the lectures, tutorials and assessment have been designed to appropriately challenge students and support the achievement of the desired learning outcomes.
A climate of inquiry and dialogue is encouraged between students and teachers and among students in and out of class. The lecturer-in-charge and tutors aim to provide meaningful and timely feedback to students to improve learning outcomes. This is not a course where you can become proficient just by observing. You will need to get involved in class activities - evaluating information, asking and answering questions. You also must learn to organise your independent study and practice enough problems to gain a thorough understanding of concepts and how to apply them.
You must get your hands dirty and learn by doing. The material given in the lecture schedule, the content of the lectures, and the content of the tutorial program define the examinable content of the course. Lectures will be delivered online.Why study Econometrics and Operations Research
These lectures will mainly be in the form of synchronous video presentations conducted during the scheduled lectures times.Note : These notes and accompanying spreadsheets are preliminary and incomplete and they are not guaranteed to be free of errors.
Check the revision dates for updates. Please let me know if you find typos or other errors. Comments and suggestions are welcome. Book chapter: a sset return calculations. Revised June 2420 Class slides: a sset return calculations. Revised June 24, Revised October 24, Book chapter: r eview of random variables and probability distributions. Revised January 16, Revised January 12, Class slides: r eview of univariate random variables and probability distributions.
Revised January 12 Class slides: review of bivariate distributions, and linear combinations of random variables. Revised July 7, Revised July 3, Revised June 26, Book chapter reviewing some basic results from matrix algebra.
Revised August 15, 20 Class slides on review of matrix algebra. Revised July 11, Powerpoint examples. R script file used for Powerpoint examples. Revised July 11, 20 Book chapter on basic time series concepts. Class slides: review of basic time series concepts stationarity, MA and AR models. Revised: July 8, Revised July 8, Book chapter on descriptive statistics for financial time series. Class slides. Basic descriptive statistics histograms, sample statistics, qq-plots, boxplots, scatterplots, sample autocorrelations.
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We know that consumers look to friends, family, and even strangers for feedback and recommendations on services and products. They trust the word of mouth marketing. We use the internet to research before we buy, so what people say online matters and influence whether or not someone purchases from you. The digital world has made information readily available, there are even applications that allow us to scan a barcode and get immediate feedback.
We want to know what others have to say about your brand and company. Reviews are not only good for customers, it's good for your overall online presence. Online reviews are having a growing impact on search engine results and they have the ability to positively impact your search engine placement, especially search placement in local listings.
Reports have also shown that customer reviews often increase the click-through rate to your website and are used to reinforce your geographic listing which is why they often increase your local search placement.
Visibility on customer review sites is a major component that search engines value and incorporate in their algorithm to determine your search relevance in the local market. Now with all of that being said, would you believe that only 23 percent of customers have every submitted an online review or rating. Most reviews also center around the negative, because that's when most consumers feel it's important to let their voice be heard. How can you change this. We know that customers are searching for information, but not finding the content that you want them to find, so how can we encourage product or service reviews.
First thing is first, you need to make sure that you have completed your profiles are on the popular review sites like:Once you've finished completing your profiles you need to strategize on how to create customer relationships making them want to leave reviews for you and become your brand ambassador. Here are just a few ideas that you can begin putting in place:When it comes to marketing we can all learn from companies that do it really well. The same is true when it comes to customer reviews.
A company that stands out in my mind that does a phenomenal job at getting reviews is Amazon. Take a look at their strategy, is there anything that you could implement into your business that would help you in getting more reviews. Use this as the last resort, most customers will leave a review without an incentive, but sometimes an incentive can motivate them to act quickly and get that review posted.
You have to do it ethically, so you can offer coupons, discounts, or a freebie, but you cannot make it conditional on a positive review.
When you get a negative review, respond in public, solve the problem. This shows that you are listening and engaged which will often encourage more feedback. When you get a positive review be sure to say thank you. How many emails do you send out a day. How many emails does your company send out a day. Include a review link in your standard email signature, you'll be surprised at how many will use it. When it comes to marketing we can all learn from companies that do it really well.